501. Perfume may be applied on Shabbos to the hands or any other part of the body. However, it must not be applied to a handkerchief, a cloth or any article of clothing.
502. One may freshen up on Shabbos using an eau-de-cologne saturated towelette or pad, since none of the perfume is visibly squeezed out.
It is the practice not to brush one's teeth on Shabbos, even without paste. One is permitted however, to use a toothpick.
503. One should not, as a rule, perform physical exercises on Shabbos, whether with or without the use of an instrument design to strengthen muscles, such as a chest expander or dumbbells. It is, however, permitted to do simple, light exercises with one's hands.
504. Ear-plugs made of wax-like material are not permitted to be used on Shabbos, as it is forbidden to spread them to fill the cavity of the ear, and if one does not do so they are not effective. Cotton-wool may be used, if it is prepared before Shabbos.
505. One must not weigh or measure oneself or any other person on Shabbos. It is permissible to weigh a child, when one has to ascertain how much weight, if any, he has gained after a meal.
506. One may not cut hair on Shabbos. It is permissible to scratch one's head or beard lightly, and one need not be afraid that one might thereby pull out some of the hairs. Likewise, one may extract the remains of food from a beard, so long as one is careful to try not to pull out any hairs.
507. One is allowed on Shabbos to remove loose dandruff from one's hair with one's hand. However, one must be careful not to remove dandruff which is still attached to the skin.
508. On Shabbos, one may neither comb one's hair, nor brush one's hair with a hard brush. Combs and hard brushes are therefore Mukzta and may not be moved.
509. On Shabbos and Yom-Tov, one is permitted to tidy one's hair a little with a soft brush which is not likely to pull out any of the hair. However, it is advisable to keep this brush specially for Shabbos and Yom-Tov, so that there is a recognizable distinction between the way in which one brushes one's hair on a normal weekday and the way one does so on Shabbos and Yom-Tov.
510. It is proper to refrain from combing a wig on Shabbos or Yom-Tov. However, it is perfectly in order to smooth the hair of a wig with a soft-haired brush.
511. A woman may put hairpins or clips in her hair on Shabbos, to hold it in place. Decorative combs may also be used for this purpose, despite the fact that the act of inserting them may, to some extent, arrange her hair (and we learned that combing hair on Shabbos is prohibited in Halacha 508).
512. Hair oil may be applied to hair on Shabbos, in small quantities, so that one should not come to squeeze it out of the hair. The use of hair cream, in any quantity, is forbidden.
513. On Shabbos, it is forbidden to spray hair or a wig in order to stiffen and preserve it's shape. It is also forbidden to style one's hair (or a wig). There are authorities who permit the hair to be sprayed with a non-stiffening perfume. But perfume must not be sprayed on a wig.
514. On Shabbos, one may gather up disheveled hair, arrange it by hand and tie it with a ribbon or hair band. One is not permitted to curl the hair with curlers or in any other way.
515. Small pieces of skin which are peeling off around the fingernail or on any other part of the body, but are still connected, may not be pulled or cut off in any way on Shabbos. Nonetheless, if the end of a nail has become detached for most of its width and is, therefore, close to coming off, AND it is causing, or one is afraid that it will cause, pain, it may be removed, either by hand or with the teeth, but not with an instrument.
516. On Shabbos, dirt may be cleaned from underneath the tip of a nail, but one must not, in doing so, scrape away any part of the nail itself.
517. It is prohibited on Shabbos to polish one's nails, even with colorless polish. It is also prohibited to color one's lips, even if one is only adding color to color that was already there when Shabbos began. This prohibition applies to colorless lipstick as well.
518. Make up in the form of cream or a cake, such as rouge or face powder mixed with cream, may not be used on Shabbos or Yom-Tov. It is also proper not to apply make-up powder to the face, even when it does not adhere well to the skin. The use of face or hand cream to soften the skin, is also not allowed.
Care of Clothes
519. One may not clean clothes on Shabbos. This applies whether one washes a garment, applies water to a garment, squeezes or shakes water out of a garment, or removes dirt from a garment by rubbing or shaking it. There is also a Rabbinical prohibition against hanging up a wash or any wet clothes to dry.
On Shabbos, plastic pants or sheets may be soaked in water or cleaned by
spraying with water, if
While wet, they must not be cleaned by rubbing one side against the other, or by rubbing them with one's hand or a cloth. A wet cloth may in no event be used, since it is inevitable that, in the process of rubbing, one will squeeze some of the water out of it.
521. Wet laundry may not be hung up to dry on Shabbos. Wet laundry also may not be hung at all in a place where it is usual to hang it to dry and may not be placed near a heater or radiator.
522. Clothes which have become wet on Shabbos, for example in the rain or with sweat, even if only partly, may neither be hung up to dry nor be placed near a heater or radiator.
523. Even wet or damp clothes which one is not allowed to hang up to dry may be put away in their usual place (such as a damp bath-robe on a hook), as long as it is not next to a heater or radiator, and as long as they are not hung up in a place where they are commonly hung up to dry, for example wet towels on a cord over the bath.
524. Laundry previously hung up to dry may be taken down on Shabbos only if, when Shabbos began, it was already dry or only damp. Clothes made of a purely synthetic material or out of plastic or rubber, may be hung up to dry on Shabbos and taken down, even if when Shabbos started they were still wet.
525. Wet clothes may not be moved on Shabbos, for fear that one may come to squeeze them out. The prohibition affects only clothes which are wet to such an extent that a hand touching them would become sufficiently wet to transfer moisture to another object with which it subsequently comes into contact with. This applies even if the clothes are only partly wet.
526. Wet clothes are Muktza on Shabbos, as we learned in the previous Halacha. However, the prohibition does not apply to clothes which are only damp, that is to say not wet to the extent specified in the previous Halacha. The prohibition also does not apply to wet towels or other wet cloths which are of a nature that one does not mind them being wet (even if they are wet to the extent specified in the previous Halacha), since one does not usually squeeze them out.
527. A person whose clothes became wet on Shabbos, may continue wearing them and need not be afraid that he will come to squeeze them out. If one has no other clothes, one may even put on wet clothes. In neither case though, may one vigorously shake the water out of the clothes, nor, while wearing them, should one stand or sit near a heater or radiator in a position where the temperature reaches Yad-Soledes (45 C, 113 F), even if one's sole intention in doing so is to warm oneself and not one's clothing.
528. Clothespins (pegs) are Muktza on Shabbos, since the normal use for which they are intended is prohibited. (They may be moved only Letzorech Gufo Umekomo - See Halacha 153).
If one is accustomed to keeping one's dirty clothes in the washing machine until they are washed, one may put them in even on Shabbos, provided that there is no water inside it.
Removing Dust or Stains
529. Cleaning a stain on clothes is forbidden on Shabbos, whether one uses a cleaning substance with a liquid consistency (even spittle), or even a dry cleaning agent such as talcum powder (which absorbs grease). It is also forbidden to remove a stain from a garment by rubbing it or by scraping it with an instrument or with one's fingernail.
Whether and how one may remove dust from a garment (the following Halachos)
depends on whether or not one is normally particular to keep the garment clean.
531. If a garment is one which one is particular to keep clean, according to the definition contained in section A of the previous Halacha, one is not allowed to shake out or remove the dust on Shabbos. If however, the garment is one which one is not normally particular to keep clean (section B of the previous Halacha), one may dust it lightly with one's hand or with a dry cloth held in one's hand, or by gently shaking it. However, one may not rub it, shake it vigorously, or remove the dust with a brush.
532. Dirt stuck to clothes, even clothes which one is particular to keep clean, may be removed in the ways listed below, provided that the dirt is moist or soft and a stain will still remain after the dirt is removed. In these circumstances, it is permissible to
It is forbidden to use a wet cloth, or to wet the garment in order to clean it.
533. Mud, or any similar substance which has dried onto a garment on Shabbos, may not be taken off at all, as it will crumble while being removed, and this is an infringement of the prohibition against grinding. Nonetheless, if the dry substance consists of food that was either previously ground, or became pulpy in cooking, as beans sometimes do - for example, and the dirt will still leave a stain on the garment after it has been taken off, then it may be removed in one of the permitted ways listed in the previous Halacha.
534. Dirt may be removed on Shabbos from a garment to which it was stuck, if one would not normally be particular to keep the garment free of that kind of dirt. This applies even if the dirt will not leave a stain after being removed, and whether the dirt is moist or dry, assuming it won't crumble (see the previous Halacha). However, the dirt must not be removed in any of the ways set out in Halacha 529.
535. The removal of dirt which is on the surface of - but not absorbed in or stuck to - a garment on Shabbos, does not fall under the prohibition against cleaning, and it may accordingly be taken off by hand or blown off (but not with a brush). One may therefore remove a feather, wisps of cotton or a thread off clothes, even if one is particular about keeping them clean. A thread which is still sewn into a garment may not be pulled out.
536. One is allowed to clean eyeglasses that one uses on Shabbos, but one must not wet the cloth one employs for that purpose. On the other hand, one may wet the lenses and wipe them with a dry cloth.
537. Due to the ease with which one can come to transgress the prohibition against cleaning on Shabbos, it is recommended that one should take care to prevent one's clothes from becoming dirty. Thus, it is a good idea to put away clothes which one is particular to keep clean, so they should not fall on the floor and become dirty. Also, one should take extra care to protect one's clothes when holding or feeding a child.
Shaking rain or snow out of clothes
538. It is altogether forbidden on Shabbos to shake out a new garment that has been soaked by rain, regardless of the color of the garment. This is because one is usually particular that no new garment should be soaked in water, and shaking it out in effect amounts to cleaning it. The same applies to a garment which, while not new, looks new.
539. If a garment is neither new nor looks new, it may be gently shaken out from rain on Shabbos. Vigorous shaking is not permitted, as the result achieved is the same as squeezing the garment out.
540. A raincoat, whether old or new, made of -or containing- cloth, may be gently shaken out from rain on Shabbos, since one does not mind it being wet (and therefore it doesn't come under the prohibition of "squeezing", which is a sub-category of "cleaning"). A raincoat made entirely of non-woven plastic, and not containing any cloth, may be shaken out even vigorously.
541. Clothes which have become wet from the rain may not be hung up to dry on Shabbos. This includes even a raincoat that contains cloth. However, they may be hung in their usual place, as long as it is not next to a radiator or heater. A plastic or entirely synthetic raincoat may be hung up to dry anywhere. If one does not have other suitable clothes, one may put a rain-soaked garment back on.
542. One may gently shake un-melted snow off clothing, but care should be taken not to do so vigorously. Snow may be shaken, even vigorously, off a raincoat made entirely of non-woven, plastic sheeting or off a plastic hat-cover or rain bonnet, so long as they do not contain any cloth.
Cleaning Shoes on Shabbos
543. It is forbidden on Shabbos to spread polish or oil on shoes, or even to shine them with a brush or cloth. One may, however, remove dust from shoes with one's hand or a cloth, as long as one is careful to do so gently, so as not to shine them.
544. Mud which is still wet may be gently, but not vigorously, removed from shoes or boots on Shabbos, with the aid of a scraper or any instrument whose use is permissible on Shabbos. The composition of the soles and heels, whether they be of plastic, rubber, or even leather, is irrelevant.
545. On Shabbos, dried mud must not be removed from shoes or boots either by hand or with an instrument, since causing the mud to crumble involves a transgression of the prohibition against grinding.
546. Dried mud, which hinders walking on Shabbos, may be washed off with a spray of water, or by standing in water, only if the shoes or boots are not sewn with any natural thread nor made of suede or cloth. Even in this case, one should refrain from rubbing them with one's hands or a cloth while they are in the water. Also, one should not wipe them clean with a wet cloth, so as not to squeeze out any water from the cloth.
One may not fold a garment or
cloth back into already existing creases on Shabbos, unless all of the following
conditions are met:
548. One should not fold a Tallis or a tablecloth on Shabbos into its previous creases, unless all of the conditions listed in the previous Halacha are met. The same applies to trousers, however, one is permitted to hang trousers on a hook even if they fall into their existing creases by themselves.
549. Any article may be folded on Shabbos if one takes care not to fold it into its original creases, but one should re-fold it into its normal creases after Shabbos. It is permissible to fold articles in which no recognizable crease is left, as in the case of rubber sheets, certain types of plastic tablecloths and thick woolen articles.
550. Dry laundry may be folded on Shabbos if one's sole purpose in folding it is to make it easier to put away, and one is not particular about the manner of folding. In this case, the folding is allowed even if one has no intention of using the articles folded on the same day, as long as it serves some purpose on Shabbos, such as keeping the house tidy.
551. The prohibition against folding on Shabbos in not infringed by restoring the dents in a hat which has become crushed, by turning down a collar which has become turned up, nor by adjusting to its proper position a trouser cuff (turn-up) which has become turned down.
Tying knots on Shabbos
There is a general prohibition against tying knots on Shabbos or Yom-Tov. This
is subject to certain exceptions which we will learn in the coming Halachos.
553. Knots which one is not allowed to tie on Shabbos, may also not be tightened if they become loose. And example is a double knot, the top knot of which is coming undone. As a result, one should beware of tightening knots of Tzitzith which have loosened.
554. It is permissible to make a single knot in articles one is accustomed to secure with a double knot, such as Tzitzith, since in this case, they cannot be said to be properly tied. It is forbidden to add a single knot to an already existing single knot, thereby converting it into a double knot, or to an already existing double knot, in order to make it more secure.
One may tie a loose double knot on Shabbos, if, both usually and on this
occasion, the knot is due to be untied within 24 hours.
556. A dressing may be tied onto a wound on Shabbos with a loose double knot, if the intention is to remove it within 24 hours. If there is no practical way of securing it (for example by means of a bow, clips or a loose double knot) one may even secure the dressing with a firm double knot, as long as the intention is to remove it within seven days.
557. A woman may tie her head scarf with a loose double knot on Shabbos, provided she is in the habit of untying it every day. However, if she is used to slipping it off without untying it, she may not tie it with a double knot, even if, this time, she does intend to untie it the same day.
558. It is permissible to tie a bow on Shabbos, that is to say a loop or a pair of loops, over a single knot, as is customary in tying shoelaces, but only if one is likely to untie it within 24 hours. Even so, one should knot make the bow more secure by tying a knot over it.
559. One should not tie a single knot with a bow over it when wrapping a Sefer Torah on Shabbos, unless one intends to read from that Sefer Torah again on that or the following day. Rather, one should simply secure the end of the girdle or ribbon by tucking it in. However, there are those of the opinion that one may tie such a bow on Shabbos, even after reading it on Shabbos afternoon, since one is performing a Mitzvah.
560. Making a bow on Shabbos without a knot underneath, is allowed, even if one's intention is that it should remain tied for an indefinite period of time, provided that one does not tie a knot over it. Tying a knot over a bow is to be treated in the same way as tying a double knot (see Halacha 555), even if there is no knot underneath.
561. Any knots that may not be tied on Shabbos may also not be untied on Shabbos, or severed in some other way. One may, however, cut or break the cord in middle (thereby spoiling it), and not where it is knotted.
562. One may untie knots on Shabbos which are intended to remain tied for less than 24 hours and are not firmly tied. Knots that are tied to last for longer periods, but for less than seven days, may be untied, but only if there is a pressing need to do so, or in order to prevent or alleviate pain or discomfort, or in the performance of a Mitzvah. In all these cases, if one cannot untie the knot it may be severed.
563. A bow which has become tangled or knotted (as in the case of shoelaces), may be untied on Shabbos. If one is unable to untie it, it may be severed.
564. One may tie a necktie on Shabbos if it is intended to be untied within 24 hours and is tied in such a way that pulling the narrow end out of the knot unties it. If however, one is in the habit of untying it every day when removing it, it may be tied even if the knot cannot be undone in this way. Otherwise, one should tie the necktie before Shabbos.
Miscellaneous rules relating to clothing
The insertion of ribbon, thread
or lace into holes or loops in clothes on Shabbos, is permitted only if three
conditions are fulfilled.
566. A lace which has come out of a shoe may be rethreaded through the eyelets, so long as either the eyelets are large enough to enable the lace to be inserted without undue difficulty or the tip of the lace is encased in a metal or plastic sheath which facilitates threading. If the lace has snapped, part of it may be rethreaded, subject to the same conditions, in order to enable continued use of the shoe.
A fresh shoe lace may not be inserted into a shoe on Shabbos, even an old shoe,
568. Elastic which has come out of
underwear or pajama pants may not be threaded back on Shabbos, because
569. A belt which is designed to be worn with a particular dress, may only be inserted into the loops of the dress if it had been in the loops before Shabbos, as we learned in Halacha 565. This is because the intention is to leave it in its loops, once inserted, so that it becomes part of the dress. On the other hand, an ordinary belt may be inserted into the loops of a dress or a pair of pants, even if they are new, since it is not usual to leave it in there permanently. The same would apply to suspenders.
570. New pairs of socks or gloves, or other new articles of clothing, which are sewn or tied together should be separated before Shabbos. If one has forgotten to do so, one should not untie any knots, but one may cut the connecting thread in such a way that the thread is spoiled (but not in front of someone unversed in the laws of Shabbos, who is likely to become confused as to what is and is not permitted). Articles which have been temporarily stapled together may be taken apart.
571. The pins that are found in brand new shirts, may be removed on Shabbos. It is forbidden however, to remove temporary tacking, whether stitches or pins, which the tailor has left in new clothes, or to rub off chalk marks made by the tailor, or to remove ends of wool left in new knitted garments.
572. On Shabbos, one may not pull out the threads forming part of a weave. Thus, loose ends of thread should not be pulled out of the edge of a bandage to make it look tidier.
One is not allowed to secure a loose stitch by pulling the thread tight. Similarly, it is prohibited to pull tight the thread securing a loose button.
573. One must not pull a button off an article of clothing on Shabbos, even if the thread by which it is attached has become very loose. Also, one may not extract the threads remaining in the cloth after a button has dropped off. While a button which has come off is not Muktza, it is better not to move it, due to the fact that it is unfit for any other use.
574. One may stick a needle or pin through cloth on Shabbos, in order to make a garment narrower or in order to join together two parts of a torn garment. One may also use a safety-pin in place of a button which has come off. Nevertheless, if possible, one should stick the pin through the cloth only once and not through and back again.
575. There is a view that holds that, if one is wearing a garment with a button so loose that one will not fasten it for fear that it will come off, one should not go out into a place without an Eruv, since he is carrying that button.
The sparks given off by synthetic garments while they are being put on or removed, do not constitute any prohibition on Shabbos.
576. One may not transfer scent onto clothes or similar articles on Shabbos. Consequently, one is not permitted to spray or sprinkle perfume onto a handkerchief or any article of clothing. An object which gives off scent, such as an Ethrog, may be wrapped in a cloth which didn't previously contain it, only if one's sole intention is to preserve it, and not to scent the cloth, and also only where there is no practical alternative.
577. It is forbidden to repair eyeglasses on Shabbos by replacing a lens which has fallen out or by straightening the frame which has become bent. However, a lens which has fallen out is not Muktza, and may be moved.
578. One may fasten or detach "Velcro" strips on Shabbos. One may not removed cleaners' or laundry labels sewn or stuck onto clothes, nor may one remove price, quality, grade or similar labels sewn or stuck onto new clothes.
579. If one has forgotten to open sealed plastic, or other, bags containing new clothes before Shabbos, one may tear them open on Shabbos, provided that one does so in such a way that the bags are spoiled that one does not tear through lettering or pictures.
580. On Shabbos, soft contact lenses may be put into the solution in which it is usual to keep them.
A rubber mattress may be inflated on Shabbos, with or without the aid of a pump, but only if the mattress has been used already at least once before Shabbos.
Games and Toys on Shabbos
581. Most of the following Halachos that we will cover in this subject, relate to the playing of games by boys under the age of thirteen or girls under the age of twelve. It is highly desirable that older children and adults should refrain from playing games, or with toys, on Shabbos. Even though Shabbos was given to be enjoyed, that enjoyment should be largely spiritual, a taste of the world to come. We are told that the reward of one who celebrates Shabbos with this approach has no bounds.
582. Making a noise on Shabbos with any device designed for that purpose is forbidden. The prohibition covers such items such as bells, rattles, flutes and whistles. All devices of this nature are Muktza. Whistling with one's mouth, without the use of an instrument, is permitted.
583. One may give to a baby on Shabbos, toys which make a noise when shaken or squeezed, even though such toys are Muktza. It is of course forbidden for an adult to cause such toys to emit a sound, even if he wishes to do so in order to amuse the baby.
One need not prevent children from playing with sand on Shabbos, provided that
It is not permitted to mix sand with water or to pour water over it, as this contravenes the prohibition against kneading.
585. On Shabbos, children must not play with marbles on the ground outside, even if the ground is paved or surfaced in some way. They may however play with marbles indoors, even on the floor, unless it consists of bare, uncovered earth.
586. There is no reason to forbid children from playing ball games on Shabbos, as long as they are played on a hard surface, such as asphalt or concrete, or a ping-pong table, whether indoors or out, provided that, where necessary, an Eiruv has been properly made. Ball games should not be played on earth or grass (lest one come to straighten out the earth or fill in holes to make the surface even).
587. A ball which lodges in a tree may not be taken down on Shabbos, either with one's hand or with the aid of a stick, nor may the tree be shaken to make the ball drop out. (These acts would fall within the prohibition against making use of something which is growing from the ground).
588. Footballs, water-polo balls and other balls which it is usual to tie after inflating are Muktza, and must not be moved on Shabbos or Yom-Tov. Inflatable balls which one does not tie and toys such as plastic animals, the air of which is kept in by the insertion of a rubber or plastic plug, or by means of an elastic band, may be blown up on Shabbos (but not for the first time).
There are at least three reasons for not visiting sports grounds, football
stadiums and the like on Shabbos, even where one gains admission without paying
an entrance fee.
590. Sticks, stones on the ground and fruit pits which are not even fit for animal consumption may not be moved on Shabbos unless they had been played with, or designated for playing with (or for some other purpose) before Shabbos. There are no grounds for permitting pits to be played with on Shabbos or Yom-Tov if they have been removed from fruit on the same day.
591. Photographs may be inserted into an album on Shabbos as long as they are not sorted before being inserted, and as long as they don't stick in any way to the pages of the album.
It is forbidden to shape models out of plasticine, clay, wax or the like and to pour plaster into any kind of mold.
592. One need not prevent children on Shabbos from playing with wind-up toys, such as model cars or robots. However, if they are made in such a way that they always produce sparks or emit a distinctive noise, there are no grounds for permitting children to play with them.
593. On Shabbos, one may not climb a tree or ascend a ladder leaning against a tree, even if the ladder has been there since before the start of Shabbos. It is permitted to play on a metal, plastic or wooden climbing-frame.
One is allowed to rock on a
swing on Shabbos, or in a hammock, as long as it is not fixed to a tree, even on
one side. One is allowed to use a swing or hammock between two trees only with
the following conditions:
It is forbidden to ride a
bicycle on Shabbos, even if it is designed for use by children. One may allow a
child to ride a tricycle or scooter with solid tires, or to roller-skate in the
house or in a place with an Eruv, but the following points should be noted;
596. One need not stop children on Shabbos from playing with ordinary toy building blocks or interconnecting blocks of any kind, unless they have to be screwed together or very tightly fixed together, in which case they may not be used.
One should not make boats, hats or other objects on Shabbos, by folding paper.
597. It is not permitted on Shabbos to assemble or dismantle a toy from a model-making kit, such as a model airplane or ship made from plastic, metal or wooden parts, as the parts join together with a great deal of precision and they are normally built with the intention of leaving them assembled for a considerable time.
Pearls and the like may not be
threaded onto a cord on Shabbos to make a necklace. However, children's beads
may be threaded onto a
cord on Shabbos, since the resulting necklace is not made to last. When doing so
however, care should be taken
One is allowed to play games on
Shabbos in which letters, or parts of letters or of a whole picture, are placed
side-by-side so as to make up a whole word or picture, provided that
600. On Shabbos, one may not impress writing or a pattern onto a special pad on which one can write without a pen and from which the writing can be erased by separating the sheets of which it is composed. It is also prohibited to make an impression with a rubber stamp.